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Vehicle and Traffic Law

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Article 48C - NY Vehicle and Traffic Law

RULES FOR OPERATION OF ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES

Section Description
2400Legislative purpose.
2401Definitions.
2402Rules and regulations.
2403Operation of ATVs; where permitted.
2404Operating rules.
2405Designation of highways and public lands for travel by ATVs.
2406Equipment.
2407Liability insurance.
2408Special events.
2409ATV safety course and safety certificate.
2410Operation by minors.
2411Liability for negligence.
2412Service on nonresidents and certain residents, administrators or executors.
2413Accidents; reports.
S 2400. Legislative  purpose.  It  is  the  purpose of this article to
  promote the safe and proper use of ATVs for recreation and  commerce  in
  this  state,  to  ensure  the  safety  and  well-being  of  all  persons
  concerning the use of ATVs, to minimize detrimental effects of such  use
  upon  the  environment,  and  to provide a method whereby municipalities
  shall consider the designation of appropriate public lands for  ATV  use
  and regulation thereof.

   S 2401. Definitions.  As  used  in  this  article,  unless the context
  requires otherwise:
    1. "Governmental agency" means any agency of the state of New York and
  all municipalities within the state.
    2. "All terrain vehicle" or "ATV" means an all terrain vehicle or  ATV
  as defined in section twenty-two hundred eighty-one of this chapter.
    3.  "Owner"  means  any  person having a title to an ATV. If an ATV is
  sold under a contract of conditional sale whereby the title  remains  in
  the  vendor,  such  vendor  or his assignee shall not, after delivery of
  such ATV, be deemed an owner within the provisions of this section,  but
  the vendee or his assignee, upon receipt of possession thereof, shall be
  deemed  such owner notwithstanding the terms of such contract, until the
  vendor or his assignee shall retake possession. A person holding only  a
  security  interest  in  an  ATV shall not be deemed an owner unless such
  person also has possession of such ATV.
    4. "Operate" means to ride in or on, other than as a passenger, or use
  or control the operation of an ATV in any manner, whether  or  not  said
  ATV is under way.
    5. "Operator" means every person who operates or is in actual physical
  control of an ATV.
    6.  "Special event" shall mean an organized rally, race, exhibition or
  demonstration of limited duration which  is  conducted  according  to  a
  prearranged schedule and in which general public interest is manifested.
    7.  "Authorized emergency ATV" shall mean an ATV designated as such in
  writing by the chief executive officer of any duly  organized  volunteer
  ambulance company, fire department, or paid fire department, operated by
  a  member  thereof  and  equipped  with  emergency lights as provided in
  section twenty-four hundred six of this article.
    8. "Authorized police ATV" shall mean an ATV operated by a  police  or
  other  peace  officer  while  engaged in the performance of his official
  duties within the area of his territorial jurisdiction.
    9. "Authorized civil defense ATV" shall mean an ATV designated as such
  in writing by the chief executive officer of a municipality and operated
  by a member of a civil defense  organization  of  the  municipality  and
  equipped  with  emergency  lights  as  provided  in  section twenty-four
  hundred six of this article.
    10. "Operation as emergency  vehicle"  shall  mean  the  operation  or
  parking  of  an  authorized  emergency ATV, police or civil defense ATV,
  including attendant equipment, displaying emergency lights  as  provided
  in  section  twenty-four  hundred  six  of this article and which ATV is
  engaged in transporting a sick or injured person to the nearest  medical
  facility  or appropriate site for transfer to an ambulance as defined in
  article thirty of the public health law, transporting emergency  medical
  services,  personnel  and equipment to sick or injured persons, pursuing
  an actual or suspected violator of the law or responding to, or  working
  or  assisting  at the scene of an accident, disaster, police call, alarm
  or other emergency but shall not include returning from such service.

   S 2402. Rules  and regulations. With a view of achieving enjoyable and
  proper use of ATVs and minimizing the detrimental  effect  thereof  upon
  the  environment, rules and regulations relating to, but not limited to,
  the following may be adopted and promulgated as herein provided.
    1. The commissioner may adopt rules and regulations:
    (a) for conducting special events as provided in  section  twenty-four
  hundred eight of this article;
    (b)  for  the  administration  and  enforcement  of  the provisions of
  section twenty-four hundred seven of this article relating to  liability
  insurance;
    (c)  establishing a comprehensive ATV information and safety education
  and training program or programs including provision for issuance of ATV
  safety certificates for operation of ATVs by youthful operators;
    (d)  with  respect  to  uniform  signs  or  markers  to  be  used   by
  governmental  agencies  which  are  necessary  or  desirable to control,
  direct or regulate the operation and use of ATVs. Such signs as  may  be
  designated   for   use  on  highways  shall  also  be  approved  by  the
  commissioner of transportation; and
    (e) with respect  to  such  other  matters  as  may  be  necessary  or
  desirable to provide for the effective administration and enforcement of
  the provisions of this article.
    2.  Any  state agency may adopt rules and regulations not inconsistent
  with the  provisions  of  the  vehicle  and  traffic  law  in  a  manner
  appropriate  to  such  agency  to  permit or regulate the use of ATVs on
  specifically   designated   land,   including   highways,   under    its
  jurisdiction.

  S 2403. Operation  of  ATVs;  where  permitted. 1. Highways. No person
  shall operate an ATV on a highway except as provided herein.
    (a) An ATV may make a direct crossing  on  a  highway  other  than  an
  interstate highway or a controlled access highway, provided:
    (i)  the  crossing is made at an angle of approximately ninety degrees
  to the direction of the highway and at  a  place  where  no  obstruction
  prevents a quick and safe crossing;
    (ii)  the  vehicle  is  brought to a complete stop before crossing the
  shoulder or main travelled way of the highway;
    (iii) the driver yields the right-of-way to all oncoming traffic  that
  constitutes an immediate hazard;
    (iv)  in  crossing  a divided highway, the crossing is made only at an
  intersection of the highway with another public street or highway, and
    (v) if the crossing is made between the hours of one-half  hour  after
  sunset  to  one-half  hour  before  sunrise  or in conditions of reduced
  visibility, only if both front and rear lights are lighted.
    (b) An ATV may be operated on any highway which  has  been  designated
  and  posted as open for travel by ATVs in accordance with the provisions
  of section twenty-four hundred five of this article.
    2. Public lands other than highways. No person shall operate an ATV on
  any public lands, waters and property other than a highway, except  that
  an  ATV may be operated on any such lands which have been designated and
  posted for travel by ATVs in accordance with the provisions  of  section
  twenty-four hundred five of this article.
    3.  Private  property.  No  person shall operate an ATV on the private
  property of another without the consent of the owner or lessee thereof.
    3-a. Real property of a farm operation. No person shall operate an ATV
  on the real property of a farm  operation,  as  defined  in  subdivision
  eleven  of section three hundred one of the agriculture and markets law,
  without the consent of the owner or lessee thereof, where such owner  or
  lessee has erected or maintained any sign, structure, display, or device
  prohibiting  the  trespass  thereon,  and  which  shall  include  a sign
  stating: "No Trespassing". A violation of this subdivision  shall  be  a
  traffic infraction, and shall, upon a conviction of a first violation be
  punishable  by  a  fine of not more than two hundred fifty dollars or by
  imprisonment for not more than fifteen days or by  both  such  fine  and
  imprisonment;  upon  a  conviction  of a second violation, both of which
  were committed within a period of eighteen months, shall  be  punishable
  by  a  fine of not more than four hundred dollars or by imprisonment for
  not more than forty-five days or by both  such  fine  and  imprisonment;
  upon  a conviction of a third or subsequent violation, all of which were
  committed within a period of eighteen months, shall be punishable  by  a
  fine  of not more than five hundred fifty dollars or by imprisonment for
  not more than ninety days or by both such fine and imprisonment.
    4. Emergency vehicle. The provisions  of  subdivisions  one,  two  and
  three  of this section shall not apply to operation as emergency vehicle
  by any  authorized  emergency,  police  or  civil  defense  all  terrain
  vehicle.

  S 2404. Operating rules. 1. No person shall operate an ATV:
    (a)  at  a  rate of speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under
  the conditions and having regard to the  actual  and  potential  hazards
  then existing;
    (b)  in a careless, reckless or negligent manner so as to unreasonably
  endanger the person or property of another or  cause  injury  or  damage
  thereto;
    (c) on the tracks or right-of-way of an operating railroad;
    (d)  in  any  tree  nursery  or  planting  in a manner that damages or
  destroys growing stock, or creates a substantial risk thereto;
    (e) while pulling a person on skis or  drawing  or  towing  a  sleigh,
  sled, toboggan, inflatable device or trailer which carries or transports
  any person unless attached by a rigid support, connection or towbar;
    (f) on the frozen surface of public waters: within one hundred feet of
  any  person  other  than a person riding on an ATV except at the minimum
  speed required to maintain forward movement of the ATV, nor  within  one
  hundred  feet of a fishing shanty or shelter except at the minimum speed
  required to maintain forward movement of the ATV nor on  an  area  which
  has  been  cleared  of  snow  for  skating  purposes  unless the area is
  necessary for access to the public water;
    (g) within one hundred feet of a dwelling  between  midnight  and  six
  a.m.,  at  a  speed  greater  than  minimum required to maintain forward
  movement of the ATV;
    (h) on public lands, other than highways, or on  private  property  of
  another  while  in  an  intoxicated  condition or under the influence of
  narcotics or drugs.
    2. The operator of an ATV shall:
    (a) stop and yield to  an  authorized  ambulance,  civil  defense,  or
  police  ATV or police vehicle being operated as an emergency vehicle and
  approaching from any direction;
    (b) comply with any lawful order or direction of any police officer or
  other person duly empowered to enforce the laws relating to ATVs.
    3. No person shall ride on or in a sleigh, sled, toboggan,  inflatable
  device  or  trailer  which  is  being  towed or trailed by an ATV unless
  attached by a rigid support, connection or towbar.
    4. A person operating an ATV shall ride only upon  the  permanent  and
  regular  seat  attached  thereto,  and such operator shall not carry any
  other person nor shall any other person ride on an ATV unless  such  ATV
  is  designed  to  carry more than one person, in which event a passenger
  may ride upon the  permanent  and  regular  seat  if  designed  for  two
  persons,  or upon another seat firmly attached to the ATV at the rear or
  side of the operator.
    5. For the purposes of title seven of this chapter, an ATV shall be  a
  motor  vehicle  and  the provisions of such title shall be applicable to
  ATVs.
    6. Local laws and ordinances. Nothing contained in this article  shall
  be deemed to limit the authority of a county, city, town or village from
  adopting  or  amending  a  local law or ordinance which imposes stricter
  restrictions and conditions on the operation of ATVs than  are  provided
  or  authorized by this section so long as such local law or ordinance is
  consistent with its authority to protect  the  order,  conduct,  health,
  safety and general welfare of persons or property.

   S 2405. Designation  of  highways and public lands for travel by ATVs.
  1. Highways. Except with respect to interstate  highways  or  controlled
  access  highways, the department of transportation with respect to state
  highways, maintained by the state and any other governmental agency with
  respect to highways, including bridge and culvert crossings,  under  its
  jurisdiction  may  designate and post any such public highway or portion
  thereof as open for travel by ATVs when  in  the  determination  of  the
  governmental  agency  concerned,  it is otherwise impossible for ATVs to
  gain  access  to  areas  or  trails  adjacent  to  the  highway.    Such
  designations  by a state agency shall be by rule or regulation, and such
  designations by any municipality other than a state agency shall  be  by
  local law or ordinance.
    2.  Public lands other than highways. A governmental agency other than
  a municipality, by regulation or order, and a municipality, by ordinance
  or local law, may designate any appropriate  public  lands,  waters  and
  properties  other  than  highways under its jurisdiction as a place open
  for travel by ATVs upon written request  for  such  designation  by  any
  person,  and  may  impose restrictions and conditions for the regulation
  and safe operation of ATVs on such public property, such  as  travel  on
  designated  trails  and  hours  of  operation. In addition thereto, such
  agency or municipality may not require the operator of an ATV to possess
  a motor vehicle operator's license. A municipality may charge a fee  for
  use of ATVs on such public lands.
    3. Signs and markers. (a) Such designated highways or portions thereof
  or designated lands shall be identified by markers in such manner as may
  be provided by rules and regulations of the commissioner.
    (b)  All signs or markers shall be erected at the expense of the state
  or municipality, provided, however, that  the  municipality  may  accept
  funds   or   contributions  therefor  from  private  persons,  clubs  or
  associations interested in the promotion of ATVs.
    4. Any regulation, order, local law or ordinance  which  designates  a
  highway or portion thereof or designated lands which may be used for ATV
  operations  may include rules and impose restrictions and conditions for
  the regulation and safe operation of ATVs on the highways and  lands  so
  designated,  such as travel on designated trails and hours of operation.
  Any restriction or condition not  contained  in  this  chapter  must  be
  posted.
    5.  Copies of orders, regulations, local laws or ordinances adopted by
  governmental agencies pursuant to this section shall be filed  with  the
  commissioner.

   S 2406. Equipment.  1.  No  person  shall  operate an ATV unless it is
  equipped with:
    (a) brakes in good operating condition;
    (b) a muffler system in good operating condition which  meets  federal
  standards  as  established  in 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) Part
  205.166, sub Part E;
    (c) a spark arrester approved by the United States Forest Service;
    (d) tires having at least two-thirty seconds of an inch of tread  with
  no visible breaks, cuts, exposed cords, bumps or bulges;
    (e)  a  lighted  white  headlight  approved  by the commissioner and a
  lighted red taillight approved by the  commissioner  when  operated  for
  one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise.
    2.  No  person  shall  operate an ATV or ride as a passenger on an ATV
  unless he is wearing a protective helmet  of  a  type  approved  by  the
  commissioner  pursuant  to  subdivision  six  of  section  three hundred
  eighty-one of this chapter.
    3. No person shall operate an ATV:
    (a) on a highway  with  tires  equipped  with  any  studs  other  than
  automotive studs;
    (b)  except  as  an authorized emergency ATV, police, or civil defense
  ATV as an emergency vehicle, while displaying one or more lighted red or
  a combination  red  or  white  lights  which  are  revolving,  rotating,
  flashing, oscillating or constantly moving;
    (c)  as  an  authorized  emergency  ATV  or  civil  defense ATV, as an
  emergency vehicle unless it is equipped with one or more lighted, red or
  combination red or white light or lights  which  is  or  are  revolving,
  rotating,  flashing,  oscillating  or constantly moving and which has or
  have minimum candle power of sufficient intensity to be plainly  visible
  from  a  distance  of  five  hundred feet in all directions under normal
  atmospheric conditions.

  S 2407. Liability  insurance.  1. An ATV which is operated anywhere in
  this state other than on lands of the owner of the ATV shall be  covered
  by  a  policy  of  insurance,  in  such  language  and  form as shall be
  determined and established by the superintendent of financial  services,
  issued  by an insurance carrier authorized to do business in this state.
  Such policy shall provide for coverages required of an  "owner's  policy
  of  liability  insurance"  as  set forth in paragraph (a) of subdivision
  four of section three hundred eleven of this chapter. In  lieu  of  such
  insurance  coverage  as  hereinabove  provided, the commissioner, in his
  discretion  and  upon  application  of  a  governmental  agency   having
  registered  in  its  name one or more ATVs, may waive the requirement of
  insurance by a private insurance carrier  and  issue  a  certificate  of
  self-insurance,  when  he  is satisfied that such governmental agency is
  possessed of financial ability to respond to judgments obtained  against
  it,  arising  out  of  the ownership, use or operation of such ATVs. The
  commissioner may also waive the requirement of insurance  by  a  private
  insurance  carrier  and  issue  a  certificate  of  self-insurance  upon
  application of any person or any other corporation, having registered in
  its name, one or more ATVs and furnishing of proof that a certificate of
  self-insurance has  been  issued  and  is  in  effect  pursuant  to  the
  provisions of section three hundred sixteen of this chapter.
    2.  Proof  of  insurance as required by this section shall be produced
  and displayed by the owner or operator of such ATV upon the  request  of
  any  magistrate or any person having authority to enforce the provisions
  of this chapter. The failure to produce such proof upon the  request  of
  any  such  person  shall  not  be  an  offense  but shall be presumptive
  evidence that the ATV is being operated without having such insurance in
  force and effect.
    3. Proof of insurance as required by this section  shall  be  produced
  and displayed by the owner or operator of such ATV to any person who has
  suffered  or  claims to have suffered either personal injury or property
  damage as a result of  the  operation  of  such  ATV  by  the  owner  or
  operator,   if   such   insurance   coverage   was  required  under  the
  circumstances of such operation. It shall be an affirmative  defense  to
  any  prosecution for a violation of this subdivision that such proof was
  so produced or displayed within twenty-four hours of receiving notice of
  such injury or damage, or the claim of such injury or damage.
    4. No owner of an ATV shall operate or permit the same to be  operated
  anywhere  in  this  state  other  than  on lands of the owner of the ATV
  without having in full force and effect the liability insurance coverage
  required by this section, and no person shall operate an ATV anywhere in
  this state other than on  lands  of  the  owner  of  the  ATV  with  the
  knowledge that such insurance is not in full force and effect.

   S 2408. Special  events. 1. The commissioner shall adopt and may, from
  time to time, amend rules and regulations determining the special events
  which shall be subject to  permit  and  designating  the  equipment  and
  facilities  necessary  for  safe operation of ATVs and for the safety of
  operators, participants, and observers in such special events. Copies of
  such regulations shall be furnished by the commissioner  to  any  person
  making an application therefor.
    2.  Whenever  a  special  event  is proposed to be held, the person in
  charge thereof shall, at  least  thirty  days  prior  thereto,  file  an
  application  with  appropriate governmental agencies having jurisdiction
  over the site of such event to hold such special event. The  application
  shall  set forth the date and location of the proposed special event and
  such other information as the governmental  agencies  may  require,  and
  such  event  shall  not  be conducted without written authorization from
  such governmental agencies. Governmental agencies shall either grant  or
  deny  authorization  to  hold  a  special event within thirty days after
  receipt of an application for authorization. The commissioner  shall  be
  furnished  with  a  copy  of  all  such applications. No permit shall be
  required for a closed-circuit special event  held  entirely  on  private
  property,  but  appropriate  governmental  agencies shall be notified of
  such event at least thirty days prior thereto.
    3. ATVs  operated  at  special  events  shall  be  exempted  from  the
  provisions  of this article concerning mufflers, lights and tires during
  the time of such event, including all pre-race practice at the  location
  of said event.

   S 2409. ATV  safety course and safety certificate. 1. Safety course or
  courses. The commissioner shall establish a curriculum or curricula  for
  an  ATV  safety  training  course  or  courses.  Any such curriculum may
  include, but not be limited to,  on-vehicle  training  and  safe  riding
  practices.   The   commissioner  may  establish  different  courses  and
  curricula for different types of all terrain vehicles. The  commissioner
  may  permit  any  such safety training course to be given by any private
  person,  club,  association  or  municipality  which   meets   standards
  established  by  the  commissioner.  The  commissioner  may  establish a
  reasonable fee which any such person  or  entity  may  charge  for  such
  course or courses.
    2.  Safety  certificate. Upon successful completion of a safety course
  given in conformity with subdivision one of this section by a person ten
  years of age or over, the person or entity which gave the  course  shall
  notify the commissioner of such completion in a manner prescribed by the
  commissioner,  The commissioner shall, upon receipt of such information,
  issue an ATV safety certificate  to  the  person  who  has  successfully
  completed  the  course.  Such  certificate may be limited to the type of
  vehicle for which the course was given.

  S 2410. Operation  by minors. 1. Except as provided by subdivision two
  of this section, no person under the age of sixteen years shall  operate
  an  ATV  except  upon  lands  owned or leased by his parent or guardian,
  unless he is under general supervision of a person eighteen years of age
  or over or a person sixteen years of age or over who holds an ATV safety
  certificate. "Leased lands" as  herein  used  shall  not  include  lands
  leased  by  an  organization  of  which  said  operator or his parent or
  guardian is a member.
    2. A person ten years of age but less than sixteen years  of  age  who
  has  received  safety training as prescribed by the commissioner and has
  received  the  appropriate  ATV  safety  certificate   issued   by   the
  commissioner  may  operate  an ATV in the same manner as a person who is
  sixteen years of age or older.
    3. The failure of a person to exhibit an ATV safety  certificate  upon
  demand  to  any  magistrate  or  any  other  officer having authority to
  enforce the provisions of this article shall  not  be  an  offense,  but
  shall be presumptive evidence that such person is not the holder of such
  certificate.
    4. No parent or guardian shall authorize or knowingly permit his child
  or  ward,  if under sixteen years of age, to operate an ATV in violation
  of any provision of this article, any rules or  regulations  promulgated
  thereunder, or the provisions of any local law or ordinance.
    5.  No  owner or other person in possession of any ATV shall authorize
  or knowingly permit any person under sixteen years  of  age  to  operate
  such  an ATV in violation of any provision of this article, any rules or
  regulations promulgated thereunder, or the provisions of any  local  law
  or ordinance.

  S 2411. Liability  for  negligence. Negligence in the use of operation
  of an ATV shall be attributable to the owner. Every owner of an ATV used
  or operated in this state shall be liable and responsible for  death  or
  injury  to person or damage to property resulting from negligence in the
  use or operation of such ATV by any person using or operating  the  same
  with  the  permission,  express  or  implied,  of  such owner, provided,
  however, that such operator's negligence shall not be attributed to  the
  owner as to any claim or cause of action accruing to the operator or his
  legal representative for such injuries or death.

  S 2412. Service  on nonresidents and certain residents, administrators
  or executors. For the purposes of section two hundred fifty-two of  this
  chapter,  an  ATV  shall be a vehicle and the provisions of that section
  and section two hundred fifty-three of this chapter shall apply to ATVs.

   S 2413. Accidents; reports. 1. The operator of any ATV involved in any
  accident  resulting  in  injuries  to or death of any person or in which
  property damage in the estimated amount of six hundred dollars  or  more
  is  sustained,  shall  immediately  notify  the  nearest law enforcement
  agency and shall within ten days after such accident report  the  matter
  in  writing  to  the  department,  with a copy thereof to the sheriff or
  police commissioner of the county in which said  accident  occurred.  If
  such operator is physically incapable of making such report and there is
  another   participant   in   the  accident  not  so  incapacitated  such
  participant shall make the report within the allotted  time  after  such
  accident.  In  the  event  that  there  is  no other participant and the
  operator is other than the  owner,  then  the  owner  shall  within  the
  prescribed period of time, after learning of the facts of such accident,
  report  the  matter to the department, together with such information as
  may have come to his knowledge relating to  such  accident.  Every  such
  operator  of  an ATV, or participant of any such accident, or the owner,
  of the ATV involved in any such accident,  shall  make  such  other  and
  additional reports as the commissioner shall require.
    2.  Whenever  any ATV meets with an accident involving a loss of life,
  personal injury or damage to  property  and  the  operator  thereof  has
  knowledge of such accident, he shall stop and give his name and address,
  the  name  and  address of the owner thereof and the registration number
  assigned to said ATV to the injured person or the person sustaining  the
  damage,  or  to  a  peace  or  police  officer.  In the event the person
  sustaining the damage is not present  at  the  place  where  the  damage
  occurred,  the  operator  shall,  as soon as physically able, report the
  same to the nearest law enforcement agency.
    3. A peace, police, or judicial officer who investigates  or  receives
  information  of an accident involving an ATV shall make a written report
  of the investigation or information received, and such additional  facts
  relating  to the accident as may come to his knowledge and mail the same
  within forty-eight hours to the department and keep a record thereof  in
  his office.
    4.  Failure  of any person to report an accident as herein provided or
  failure to give  correctly  the  information  required  of  him  by  the
  commissioner  in  connection with such report shall be a misdemeanor and
  shall constitute a ground for suspension or revocation of the ATV safety
  certificate of any person or the certificate of registration of any  ATV
  involved  in  the accident. The commissioner may temporarily suspend the
  ATV safety certificate of the person failing to make such report or  the
  certificate  of  registration  of the ATV involved in the accident until
  such report has been filed.

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Title 1 | Title 2 | Title 3 | Title 4 |Title 5 | Title 6 |Title 7 | Title 8 | Title 9 | Title 10 | Title 11 | Title 12 | 01 | 02 | 2A | 2B | 03 | 3A | 04 | 05 | 5A | 06 | 07 | 08 | 09 | 10 |11 | 12 | 12a | 12b | 12c | 13 | 14 | 14A | 14B | 15 | 15A | 16 | 17 | 17A | 17A* | 17B | 17C | 18 | 19 | 19A | 19B | 20 | 21 | 21A | 21B | 21C | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 34A | 34B | 34C | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 44A | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 48A | 48B | 48C | 49 | 50

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