New York State Law
Vehicle and Traffic Law
Consolidated Laws of New York's VTL code
Article 28 - NY Vehicle and Traffic Law
TURNING AND STARTING AND SIGNALS ON STOPPING AND TURNING
|1160||Required position and method of turning at intersections.|
|1161||U turns in certain areas prohibited.|
|1162||Starting parked vehicle.|
|1163||Turning movements and required signals.|
|1164||Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps.|
|1165||Method of giving hand-and-arm signals.|
|1166||Required position for turning at alley, driveway, private road or onto property off the roadway.|
|Common Traffic Law Violations for Article 28|
S 1160. Required position and method of turning at intersections. The
driver of a vehicle intending to turn at an intersection shall do so as
(a) Right turns. Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn
shall be made as close as practicable to the right hand curb or edge of
the roadway or, where travel on the shoulder or slope has been
authorized, from the shoulder or slope.
(b) Left turns on two-way roadways. At any intersection where traffic
is permitted to move in both directions on each roadway entering the
intersection, an approach for a left turn shall be made in that portion
of the right half of the roadway nearest the center line thereof and by
passing to the right of such center line where it enters the
intersection and after entering the intersection the left turn shall be
made so as to leave the intersection to the right of the center line of
the roadway being entered. Whenever practicable the left turn shall be
made in that portion of the intersection to the left of the center of
(c) Left turns on other than two-way roadways. At any intersection
where traffic is restricted to one direction on one or more of the
roadways, the driver of a vehicle intending to turn left at any such
intersection shall approach the intersection in the extreme left-hand
lane of the roadway lawfully available to traffic moving in the
direction of travel of such vehicle or, where travel on the shoulder or
slope has been authorized, from the shoulder or slope, and after
entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to leave the
intersection, as nearly as practicable, in the left-hand lane lawfully
available to traffic moving in such direction upon the roadway being
(d) When markers, buttons, signs, or other markings are placed within
or adjacent to intersections and thereby require and direct that a
different course from that specified in this section be traveled by
vehicles turning at an intersection, no driver of a vehicle shall turn a
vehicle at an intersection other than as directed and required by such
markers, buttons, signs, or other markings.
(e) U-turns. U-turns shall be made from and to that portion of the
highway nearest the marked center line. Where more than one lane of a
highway has been designated for left turns, U-turns shall be made only
from the lane so designated that is adjacent to the marked center line.
S 1161. U turns in certain areas prohibited. No motor vehicle shall
make a U turn upon any curve, or upon the approach to, or near the crest
of a grade, where such motor vehicle cannot be seen by the driver of any
other motor vehicle approaching from either direction within five
b. No motor vehicle shall make a U turn within a school zone. For the
purposes of this subdivision, the term "school zone" shall mean the
distance along a highway passing a school building, entrance or exit of
a school abutting on the highway for which a school sign (S1-1) has been
posted pursuant to this chapter and in compliance with the manual on
uniform traffic control devices maintained pursuant to section sixteen
hundred eighty of this chapter.
S 1162. Starting parked vehicle. No person shall move a vehicle which
is stopped, standing, or parked unless and until such movement can be
made with reasonable safety.
S 1163. Turning movements and required signals. (a) No person shall
turn a vehicle at an intersection unless the vehicle is in proper
position upon the roadway as required in section eleven hundred sixty,
or turn a vehicle to enter a private road or driveway, or otherwise turn
a vehicle from a direct course or move right or left upon a roadway
unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety. No
person shall so turn any vehicle without giving an appropriate signal in
the manner hereinafter provided.
(b) A signal of intention to turn right or left when required shall be
given continuously during not less than the last one hundred feet
traveled by the vehicle before turning.
(c) No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle
without first giving an appropriate signal in the manner provided herein
to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the rear when there is
opportunity to give such signal.
(d) The signals provided for in section eleven hundred sixty-four
shall be used to indicate an intention to turn, change lanes, or start
from a parked position and not be flashed on one side only on a parked
or disabled vehicle, or flashed as a courtesy or "do pass" signal to
operators of other vehicles approaching from the rear.
(e) The driver of a vehicle equipped with simultaneously flashing
signals as provided for in subdivision eighteen-a of section three
hundred seventy-five shall use such signals when the vehicle is stopped
or disabled on a public highway, except when such vehicle is stopped in
compliance with a traffic-control device or when legally parked. The
driver of a vehicle so equipped may use such signals whenever necessary
to warn the operators of following vehicles of the presence of a traffic
hazard ahead of the signaling vehicle, or to warn the operators of other
vehicles that the signaling vehicle may itself constitute a traffic
hazard, taking into account traffic and highway conditions. No person
shall use such signals for any other purpose.
S 1164. Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps. (a) Any stop or turn
signal when required herein shall be given either by means of the hand
and arm or by signal lamps, except as otherwise provided in subsection
(b) Any motor vehicle in use on a highway shall be equipped with, and
required signal shall be given by, signal lamps when the distance from
the center of the top of the steering post to the left outside limit of
the body, cab, or load of such motor vehicle exceeds twenty-four inches,
or when the distance from the center of the top of the steering post to
the rear limit of the body or load thereof exceeds fourteen feet. The
latter measurement shall apply to any single vehicle, also to any
combination of vehicles. On a combination of vehicles, the rear signal
lamps shall be at the rear of the last vehicle in the combination. The
provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to a vehicle, alone or in
combination with other vehicles or implements, if such vehicle is used
solely for agricultural purposes, and is not designed and intended
primarily for use on the highway, or to fire vehicles, or to special
purpose commercial motor vehicles registered under schedule F of
subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter.
S 1165. Method of giving hand-and-arm signals. All signals herein
required given by hand and arm shall be given from the left side of the
vehicle in the following manner and such signals shall indicate as
1. Left turn. Hand and arm extended horizontally.
2. Right turn. Hand and arm extended upward.
3. Stop or decrease speed. Hand and arm extended downward.
S 1166. Required position for turning at alley, driveway, private road
or onto property off the roadway. The driver of a vehicle intending to
turn from a roadway into an alley, driveway, private road or onto
property off the roadway, shall approach the turn as follows:
(a) Right turns. The approach for a right turn shall be made as close
as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway.
(b) Left turns from two-way roadways. The approach for a left turn
from a two-way roadway shall be made in that portion of the right half
of the roadway nearest the center thereof.
(c) Left turns from other than two-way roadways. The approach for a
left turn from a roadway on which traffic is restricted to one direction
shall be made in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to
Top of Page
||Description of Violation
||Improper right turn
||Improper left turn (two-way)
||Improper left turn (one-way)
||Failed to turn as required
||U-turn at grade/curve
||Moved stopped vehicle unsafely
|| Failed to signal for turn
||Failed to signal when stopping
||Failed to use emergency flashers
||No directional's - certain vehicles
||Improper right turn off roadway
||Improper left turn off roadway
||Improper left turn (one-way) off roadway
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