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Article 28 - NY Vehicle and Traffic Law

TURNING AND STARTING AND SIGNALS ON STOPPING AND TURNING

Section Description
1160Required position and method of turning at intersections.
1161U turns in certain areas prohibited.
1162Starting parked vehicle.
1163Turning movements and required signals.
1164Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps.
1165Method of giving hand-and-arm signals.
1166Required position for turning at alley, driveway, private road or onto property off the roadway.
Common Traffic Law Violations for Article 28
S 1160. Required position and method of turning at intersections. The
  driver of a vehicle intending to turn at an intersection shall do so  as
  follows:
    (a)  Right  turns. Both the approach for a right turn and a right turn
  shall be made as close as practicable to the right hand curb or edge  of
  the  roadway  or,  where  travel  on  the  shoulder  or  slope  has been
  authorized, from the shoulder or slope.
    (b) Left turns on two-way roadways. At any intersection where  traffic
  is  permitted  to  move  in both directions on each roadway entering the
  intersection, an approach for a left turn shall be made in that  portion
  of  the right half of the roadway nearest the center line thereof and by
  passing  to  the  right  of  such  center  line  where  it  enters   the
  intersection  and after entering the intersection the left turn shall be
  made so as to leave the intersection to the right of the center line  of
  the  roadway  being entered. Whenever practicable the left turn shall be
  made in that portion of the intersection to the left of  the  center  of
  the intersection.
    (c)  Left  turns  on  other than two-way roadways. At any intersection
  where traffic is restricted to one direction  on  one  or  more  of  the
  roadways,  the  driver  of  a vehicle intending to turn left at any such
  intersection shall approach the intersection in  the  extreme  left-hand
  lane  of  the  roadway  lawfully  available  to  traffic  moving  in the
  direction of travel of such vehicle or, where travel on the shoulder  or
  slope  has  been  authorized,  from  the  shoulder  or  slope, and after
  entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to leave the
  intersection, as nearly as practicable, in the left-hand  lane  lawfully
  available  to  traffic  moving  in such direction upon the roadway being
  entered.
    (d) When markers, buttons, signs, or other markings are placed  within
  or  adjacent  to  intersections  and  thereby  require and direct that a
  different course from that specified in  this  section  be  traveled  by
  vehicles turning at an intersection, no driver of a vehicle shall turn a
  vehicle  at  an intersection other than as directed and required by such
  markers, buttons, signs, or other markings.
    (e) U-turns. U-turns shall be made from and to  that  portion  of  the
  highway  nearest  the  marked center line. Where more than one lane of a
  highway has been designated for left turns, U-turns shall be  made  only
  from the lane so designated that is adjacent to the marked center line.

  S 1161. U turns in certain areas prohibited. No motor vehicle shall
  make a U turn upon any curve, or upon the approach to, or near the crest
  of a grade, where such motor vehicle cannot be seen by the driver of any
  other  motor  vehicle  approaching  from  either  direction  within five
  hundred feet.
    b. No motor vehicle shall make a U turn within a school zone. For  the
  purposes  of  this  subdivision,  the  term "school zone" shall mean the
  distance along a highway passing a school building, entrance or exit  of
  a school abutting on the highway for which a school sign (S1-1) has been
  posted  pursuant  to  this  chapter and in compliance with the manual on
  uniform traffic control devices maintained pursuant to  section  sixteen
  hundred eighty of this chapter.

S 1162. Starting parked vehicle. No person shall move a vehicle which
is stopped, standing, or parked unless and until such movement can be
made with reasonable safety.

S 1163. Turning movements and required signals. (a) No person shall
turn a vehicle at an intersection unless the vehicle is in proper
position upon the roadway as required in section eleven hundred sixty,
or turn a vehicle to enter a private road or driveway, or otherwise turn
a vehicle from a direct course or move right or left upon a roadway
unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety. No
person shall so turn any vehicle without giving an appropriate signal in
the manner hereinafter provided.
  (b) A signal of intention to turn right or left when required shall be
given continuously during not less than the last one hundred feet
traveled by the vehicle before turning.
  (c) No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle
without first giving an appropriate signal in the manner provided herein
to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the rear when there is
opportunity to give such signal.
  (d) The signals provided for in section eleven hundred sixty-four
shall be used to indicate an intention to turn, change lanes, or start
from a parked position and not be flashed on one side only on a parked
or disabled vehicle, or flashed as a courtesy or "do pass" signal to
operators of other vehicles approaching from the rear.
  (e) The driver of a vehicle equipped with simultaneously flashing
signals as provided for in subdivision eighteen-a of section three
hundred seventy-five shall use such signals when the vehicle is stopped
or disabled on a public highway, except when such vehicle is stopped in
compliance with a traffic-control device or when legally parked. The
driver of a vehicle so equipped may use such signals whenever necessary
to warn the operators of following vehicles of the presence of a traffic
hazard ahead of the signaling vehicle, or to warn the operators of other
vehicles that the signaling vehicle may itself constitute a traffic
hazard, taking into account traffic and highway conditions. No person
shall use such signals for any other purpose.

S 1164. Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps. (a) Any stop or turn
signal when required herein shall be given either by means of the hand
and arm or by signal lamps, except as otherwise provided in subsection
(b).
  (b) Any motor vehicle in use on a highway shall be equipped with, and
required signal shall be given by, signal lamps when the distance from
the center of the top of the steering post to the left outside limit of
the body, cab, or load of such motor vehicle exceeds twenty-four inches,
or when the distance from the center of the top of the steering post to
the rear limit of the body or load thereof exceeds fourteen feet. The
latter measurement shall apply to any single vehicle, also to any
combination of vehicles. On a combination of vehicles, the rear signal
lamps shall be at the rear of the last vehicle in the combination. The
provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to a vehicle, alone or in
combination with other vehicles or implements, if such vehicle is used
solely for agricultural purposes, and is not designed and intended
primarily for use on the highway, or to fire vehicles, or to special
purpose commercial motor vehicles registered under schedule F of
subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter.

S 1165. Method of giving hand-and-arm signals. All signals herein
required given by hand and arm shall be given from the left side of the
vehicle in the following manner and such signals shall indicate as
follows:
  1. Left turn. Hand and arm extended horizontally.
  2. Right turn. Hand and arm extended upward.
  3. Stop or decrease speed. Hand and arm extended downward.

S 1166. Required position for turning at alley, driveway, private road
or onto property off the roadway. The driver of a vehicle intending to
turn from a roadway into an alley, driveway, private road or onto
property off the roadway, shall approach the turn as follows:
  (a) Right turns. The approach for a right turn shall be made as close
as practicable to the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway.
  (b) Left turns from two-way roadways. The approach for a left turn
from a two-way roadway shall be made in that portion of the right half
of the roadway nearest the center thereof.
  (c) Left turns from other than two-way roadways. The approach for a
left turn from a roadway on which traffic is restricted to one direction
shall be made in the extreme left-hand lane lawfully available to
traffic.

Top of Page
Section Sub Description of Violation
1160 (a) Improper right turn
1160 (b) Improper left turn (two-way)
1160 (c) Improper left turn (one-way)
1160 (d) Failed to turn as required
1161   U-turn at grade/curve
1162   Moved stopped vehicle unsafely
1163 (a) Improper/unsafe turn
1163 (b) Failed to signal for turn
1163 (c) Failed to signal when stopping
1163 (e) Failed to use emergency flashers
1164 (b) No directional's - certain vehicles
1166 (a) Improper right turn off roadway
1166 (b) Improper left turn off roadway
1166 (c) Improper left turn (one-way) off roadway
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