NYS Vehicle and Traffic Law

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New York Vehicle and Traffic Law

The consolidated Vehicle and Traffic Laws of New York State.

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Vehicle and Traffic Law New York State

This is the expanded index of the Vehicle and Traffic Law. View Compact Index.

TITLE I WORDS AND PHRASES DEFINED
Article Section Description
 1 100-106 Words and phrases defined
TITLE II DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES; COMMISSIONER
Article Section Description
 2 200-224a Department of Motor Vehicles; Commissioner
 2A 225-228 Adjudication of Traffic Infractions
     225 Jurisdiction; Transfer of Cases; Hearing Officers; Regulations
     226 Summons; Answer
     227 Hearings; Determinations
     228 Administrative Review
 2B 235-244 Adjudication of Parking Infractions
 3 250-254 Exemption of Non-resident Owners and Operators
     250 Exemption of non-resident owners and operators
     251 Exemption for members of the armed forces and their dependents
     252 Exemption of certain in-transit vehicle registrations
     253 Service of summons on non-residents
     254 Service of summons on residents who depart from state and on residents' executors or administrators who are nonresidents or who depart from state
 3A 260-263 Administrative Appeals
     260 Appeals board; functions
     261 Right of appeal; time limitations; appeal procedures; fees
     262 Stays pending appeal
     263 Judicial review
TITLE III SAFETY RESPONSIBILITY; FINANCIAL SECURITY; EQUIPMENT; INSPECTION; SIZE AND WEIGHT; AND OTHER PROVISIONS
Article Section Description
 4 300 Application of This Title
     300 Application of This Title
 5 301-308 Periodic Inspection of Motor Vehicles
     301 Periodic inspection of all motor vehicles
     301a Re-inspection of motor vehicles involved in certain accidents
     301b Heavy duty vehicle emissions
     302 Powers and duties of the commissioner
     303 Official inspection stations
     304 Inspection and certificates of inspection
     304a Certified inspectors
     305 Fees
     306 Enforcement
     307 Voluntary inspection
     308 Definitions
 5A 309-309e Enacted without article heading.
     309 Legislative findings
     309a Establishment of experimental motor vehicle inspection stations
     309b Federal funds
     309c Contracts
     309d Fees
     309e Reports
 6 310-321 Motor Vehicle Financial Security Act
 7 330-368 Motor Vehicle Safety Responsibility Act
 8 370-371 Indemnity Bonds or Insurance Policies On Vehicles Transporting Passengers for Hire
     370 Indemnity bonds or insurance policies; notice of accident
     371 Certificate of department of transportation in lieu of indemnity bonds or insurance policies
 9 375-383 Equipment of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles
     375 Equipment
     375a Prohibition against retaliatory action
     376 Lamps, signaling devices and reflectors on vehicles
     376a Defective equipment
     377 Vehicles engaged in the transportation of logs and other materials
     378 Additional safety requirements for commercial vehicles and vehicles transporting hazardous materials
     380a Certain vehicles engaged in the transportation of loose cargo
     381 Motorcycle equipment
     382 Hydraulic brake fluid
     382a Brake linings
     382b Service brake system
     382c Occupant compartments
     383 Safety belts and anchorage assemblies
 10 385-386 Dimensions and Weights of Vehicles
     385 Dimensions and weights of vehicles
     386 Motor vehicle sound level limits
 11 388 Civil Liability
     388 Negligence in use or operation of vehicle attributable to owner
 12 390-397b Other Provisions
 12A 398-398k Motor Vehicle Repair Shop Registration Act
     398 Title
     398a Statement of purpose
     398b Definitions
     398c Registration required; application; fees and issuance of certificate of registration
     398d Motor vehicle repair shop requirements
     398e Suspension, revocation or refusal to issue registration; civil penalty; restitution; surrender of certificate of registration
     398f Hearings; review board; appeals; judicial review
     398g Powers of the commissioner
     398h Separability clause
     398i Unregistered operation; procedures and penalties
     398k Improper display of signs
 12B 399A-399g Approval of Motor Vehicle Accident Prevention Courses
     399a Statement of purpose
     399b Definitions
     399c Approval by the commissioner
     399d Application for approval
     399e Standards for course approval
     399f Proof of effectiveness
     399g Regulations
 12C 399K-399o Accident Prevention Course Internet, and Other Technology Pilot Program
     399k Accident prevention course internet technology pilot program
     399l Application
     399m Pilot program scope and duration
     399n Regulations
     399o Report by commissioner
TITLE IV REGISTRATION OF VEHICLE
Article Section Description
 13 400-400a Application of This Title
 14 401-404w*2 Registration of Motor Vehicles
 14A 405-405i Apportionment Or Allocation of Registration Fee Agreement
 14B 406-409 Bus Taxation Proration and Reciprocity Agreement
 15 410-412 Registration of Motorcycles
     410 Registration of motorcycles; fees; renewals
     410a Motorcycle safety program
     411 Distinctive number; form of number plates
     411a Issuance of special number plates
     411b Registration fee schedule for historical motorcycles
     412 Punishment for violation
 15A 413 Reciprocity Agreements for The Recognition of The Agricultural Truck Registration Class
 16 415-419 Registration of Dealers and Transporters
 17 420-431 Other Provisions Relating to Registration and Possession
 17A 460-473 Franchised Motor Vehicle Dealer Act
 17A* 490-495 Non-Driver Identification Card
 17B 498 Interjurisdictional Pre-Arranged for-hire Vehicle Operation
 17C 499-499d Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District Supplemental Registration Fee
TITLE V DRIVER'S LICENSES
Article Section Description
 18 500 Application of This Title
 19 501-509 Licensing of Drivers
     501 Drivers' license and learners' permits
     501a Definitions
     501b Additional restrictions on certain learners' permits and drivers' licenses
     502 Requirements for licensing
     502a Determination of weights applicable to license requirements
     503 Period of validity of drivers' licenses, learners' permits and applications; required fees
     504 Form of license
     505 Duplicate and amended licenses and permits; change of address
     506 Reexamination of licenses
     507 Miscellaneous provisions
     508 Administrative procedures
     509 Violations
 19a 509a-509o Special Requirements for Bus Drivers
     509a Definitions
     509b Qualifications of bus drivers
     509bb Reexamination of bus drivers
     509c Disqualification of bus drivers generally
     509cc Disqualification of drivers of school buses
     509d Qualification procedures for bus drivers, maintenance of files and availability to subsequent employers
     509e Annual review of driving record
     509f Record of violations
     509g Examinations and tests
     509h Operation by person not licensed to drive a bus
     509i Notification of a conviction resulting from a violation of this chapter in this state or a motor vehicle conviction in another state and license revocation
     509j Compliance required
     509k Ill or fatigued operator
     509l Drugs, controlled substance and intoxicating liquor
     509m Duties of the department
     509n Exempt carriers; reporting requirements
     509o Penalties
 19b 509p-509y Special Requirements for Commercial Motor Carriers
     509p Definitions
     509q Application for employment
     509r Investigations and inquiries
     509s Annual review of driving record
     509t Record of violations
     509u Commercial driver qualification files
     509v Investigation of motor carrier files
     509w Penalties
     509x Exemptions
     509y Rules and regulations
 20 510-517 Suspension and Revocation
     510 Suspension, revocation and reissuance of licenses and registrations
     510a Suspension and revocation of commercial driver's licenses
     510aa Downgrade of commercial driver's licenses
     510b Suspension and revocation for violations committed during probationary periods
     510c Suspension and revocation of learner's permits and driver's licenses for violations committed by holders of class DJ or class MJ learner's permits or licenses
     511 Operation while license or privilege is suspended or revoked; aggravated unlicensed operation
     511a Facilitating aggravated unlicensed operation of a motor vehicle
     511b Seizure and redemption of unlawfully operated vehicles
     511c Seizure and forfeiture of vehicles used in the unlicensed operation of a motor vehicle under certain circumstances
     511d Aggravated failure to answer appearance tickets or pay fines imposed
     512 Operation while registration or privilege is suspended or revoked
     513 Certificate of magistrate
     514 Certifying convictions, forfeitures and nonappearances to the commissioner and recording convictions
     514a Notification of convictions, suspensions, revocations, cancellations and disqualifications by commercial motor vehicle operators
     514b Certification of convictions, suspensions, revocations and disqualifications
     514c Certification of convictions, suspensions, revocations and disqualifications
     515 Alteration of convictions endorsed on licenses
     516 Driver license compact
     516a Reciprocal driver license agreements with provinces of Canada
     516b Reciprocal agreements concerning reporting of traffic offenses and administrative action thereon
     517 Interstate compact guaranteeing appearance
 21 520-523b Alcohol and Drug Rehabilitation Program
     520 Statement of findings and declaration of purpose
     523 Reports
     523a Driver improvement clinic programs
     523b Experimental driver safety programs
 21a 530 Restricted Use Licenses
     530 Restricted use licenses
 21b 540-545 Medical Advisory Board
     540 Creation
     541 Purpose
     542 Composition of the board
     543 Appointment; compensation; meetings
     544 Responsibilities
     545 Immunity
 21c 546-551 Certificates for Escort Vehicles
     546 Escort certificates
     547 Period of validity of escort certificates
     548 Fees
     549 Cancellation of an escort certificate
     550 Recertification
     551 Violations
TITLE VI ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT REPORTS
Article Section Description
 22 600-605 Accidents and Accident Reports
     600 Leaving scene of an incident without reporting
     601 Leaving scene of injury to certain animals without reporting
     602 Arrest for violations of sections six hundred and six hundred one
     603 Accidents; police authorities and coroners to report
     603a Accidents; police authorities to investigate
     603b Accidents; police to indicate serious physical injury and death on simplified traffic information or summons and compliant
     604 Reports; contents; preparation; distribution; filing
     605 Report required upon accident
TITLE VII RULES OF THE ROAD
Article Section Description
 23 1100-1105 Obedience to and Effect of Traffic Laws
     1100 Provisions of title refer to vehicles upon highways; exceptions
     1101 Required obedience to traffic laws
     1102 Obedience to police officers and flagpersons
     1103 Public officers and employees to obey title; exceptions
     1104 Authorized emergency vehicles
     1105 Traffic laws apply to persons riding animals or driving animal-drawn vehicles
 24 1110-1117 Traffic Signs, Signals and Markings
     1110 Obedience to and required traffic-control devices
     1111 Traffic-control signal indications
     1111a Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with traffic-control indications
     1111b Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with traffic-control indications
     1111b*2 Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with traffic-control indications
     1111b*3 Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with traffic-control indications
     1111b*4 Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with traffic-control indications
     1111b*5 Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with traffic-control indications
     1111b*6 Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with traffic-control indications
     1111c Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with bus lane restrictions
     1112 Pedestrian-control signal indications
     1113 Flashing signal indications
     1114 Display of unauthorized signs, signals, or markings
     1115 Interference with official traffic-control devices, railroad signs or signals and other highway appurtenances
     1116 Lane-use control signal indications
     1117 Traffic-control signals; malfunction
 25 1120-1131 Driving On Right Side of Roadway, Overtaking and Passing, Etc.
     1120 Drive on right side of roadway; exceptions
     1121 Passing vehicles proceeding in opposite directions
     1122 Overtaking a vehicle on the left
     1122a Overtaking a bicycle
     1123 When overtaking on the right is permitted
     1124 Limitations on overtaking on the left
     1125 Further limitations on driving to left of center of roadway
     1126 No-passing zones
     1127 One-way roadways and and circular intersections
     1128 Driving on roadways laned for traffic
     1129 Following too closely
     1130 Divided and controlled-access highways
     1131 Driving on shoulders and slopes
 26 1140-1146a Right of Way
     1140 Vehicle approaching or entering intersection
     1141 Vehicle turning left
     1142 Vehicle entering stop or yield intersection
     1143 Vehicle entering roadway
     1144 Operation of vehicles on approach of authorized emergency vehicles
     1144a Operation of vehicles when approaching a parked, stopped or standing authorized emergency vehicle or hazard vehicle
     1145 Vehicle approaching rotary traffic circle or island
     1146 Drivers to exercise due care
     1146a Approaching horses
 27 1150-1157 Pedestrians' Rights and Duties
     1150 Pedestrians subject to traffic regulations
     1151 Pedestrians' right of way in crosswalks
     1151a Pedestrians' right of way on sidewalks
     1152 Crossing at other than crosswalks
     1153 Provisions relating to blind or visually impaired persons
     1155 Pedestrians to use right half of crosswalks
     1156 Pedestrians on roadways
     1157 Pedestrians soliciting rides, or business
 28 1160-1166 Turning and Starting and Signals On Stopping and Turning
     1160 Required position and method of turning at intersections
     1161 U turns in certain areas prohibited
     1162 Starting parked vehicle
     1163 Turning movements and required signals
     1164 Signals by hand and arm or signal lamps
     1165 Method of giving hand-and-arm signals
     1166 Required position for turning at alley, driveway, private road or onto property off the roadway
 29 1170-1176 Special Stops Required
     1170 Obedience to signal indicating approach of train
     1171 Certain vehicles must stop at all railroad grade crossings
     1172 Stop signs and yield signs
     1173 Emerging from alley, driveway, private road or building
     1174 Overtaking and passing school bus
     1175 Obstructing traffic at intersection
     1176 Obstructing highway-railroad grade crossings
 30 1180-1182b Speed Restrictions
     1180 Basic rule and maximum limits
     1180a Maximum speed limits
     1180b Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with certain posted
maximum speed limits
     1181 Minimum speed regulations
     1182 Speed contests and races
     1182a Multi-jurisdictional speed contests, races and similar special events
     1182b Filming of movies, commercials and similar events
 31 1192-1199 Alcohol and Drug-related Offenses and Procedures
     1192 Operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or drugs
     1192a Operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol under 21
     1193 Sanctions
     1194 Arrest and testing
     1194a Driving after having consumed alcohol; under 21
     1195 Chemical test evidence
     1196 Alcohol and drug rehabilitation program
     1197 Special traffic options program for driving while intoxicated
     1198 Installation and operation of ignition interlock devices
     1198a Special procedures and disposition involving alcohol
     1199 Driver responsibility assessment
 32 1200-1204 Stopping, Standing, and Parking
     1200 Basic rules
     1201 Stopping, standing, or parking outside of business or residence districts
     1202 Stopping, standing or parking prohibited in specified places
     1203 Additional parking regulations
     1203a Parking permits for handicapped persons
     1203b Parking spaces; handicapped
     1203c Off street parking spaces for the handicapped
     1203d Out-of-state vehicles bearing special identification
     1203e Dumping snow onto parking places for handicapped prohibited
     1203f Handicapped parking enforcement
     1203g Establishment of the handicapped parking education program
     1203h Metered parking waiver for certain disabilities
     1204 Officers authorized to remove illegally stopped vehicles
 33 1210-1229d Miscellaneous Rules
     1210 Unattended motor vehicle
     1211 Limitations on backing
     1212 Reckless driving
     1213 Obstruction to driver's view or driving mechanism
     1214 Opening and closing vehicle doors
     1215 Driving on mountain highways
     1216 Coasting prohibited
     1217 Following emergency fire vehicles prohibited
     1218 Crossing fire hose
     1219 Putting glass or other injurious substances on highway prohibited
     1220 Throwing refuse on highways and adjacent lands prohibited
     1220a Liability for violation of a local law prohibiting unlawful dumping in a city having a population of one million or more
     1220b Unlawful solicitation of ground transportation services at an airport
     1220c Work permits for work on state highways
     1221 Driving through safety zone prohibited
     1222 Persons riding on trucks
     1223 Lights on vehicles used for transportation of passengers
     1223a School buses; required identification
     1224 Abandoned vehicles
     1225 Avoiding intersection or traffic-control device
     1225a Driving on sidewalks
     1225b Retail sale of frozen desserts by motor vehicle; restrictions
     1225c Use of mobile telephones
     1225d Use of portable electronic devices
     1226 Control of steering mechanism
     1227 Consumption or possession of alcoholic beverages in certain motor vehicles
     1228 Riding in house coach trailers
     1229 Sign required on privately-owned vehicle used in delivery of mail
     1229a Pedestrians, animals, and non-motorized vehicles prohibited on state expressway highways or state interstate route highways including the entrances thereto and exits therefrom
     1229b Operation of school, camp and charter omnibuses with passengers standing prohibited
     1229c Operation of vehicles with safety seats and safety belts
     1229d School bus attendant
 34 1230-1241 Operation of Bicycles and Play Devices
     1230 Effect of regulations
     1231 Traffic laws apply to persons riding bicycles or skating or gliding on in-line skates
     1232 Riding on bicycles
     1233 Clinging to vehicles
     1234 Riding on roadways, shoulders, bicycle or in-line skate lanes and bicycle or in-line skate paths
     1235 Carrying articles
     1236 Lamps and other equipment on bicycles
     1237 Method of giving hand and arm signals by bicyclists
     1238 Passengers on bicycles under one year of age prohibited; passengers and operators under fourteen years of age to wear protective headgear
     1239 Reflective material and devices for in-line skating
     1240 Leaving the scene of an incident involving a wheeled non-motorized means of conveyance without reporting 2nd degree
     1241 Leaving the scene of an incident involving a wheeled non-motorized means of conveyance without reporting 1st degree
 34a 1250-1253 Operation of Motorcycles
     1250 Traffic laws apply to persons operating motorcycles
     1251 Riding on motorcycles
     1252 Operating motorcycles on roadways laned for traffic
     1253 Clinging to other vehicles
 34b 1260-1265 Riding Horses
     1260 Effect of regulations
     1261 Traffic laws apply to persons riding or leading horses
     1262 Riding on roadways, shoulders and horse paths
     1263 Carrying articles
     1264 Ban on night riding
     1265 Wearing of helmets
 34c 1270-1277 Operation of Electric Personal Assistive Mobility Devices
     1270 Effect of regulations
     1271 Traffic laws apply to persons operating electric personal assistive mobility devices
     1272 Operating electric personal assistive mobility devices
     1273 Clinging to vehicles
     1274 Riding on roadways, shoulders and lanes reserved for non-motorized vehicles and devices
     1275 Lamps and other equipment
     1276 Operators to wear protective headgear
     1277 Leaving the scene of an incident involving an electric personal assistive mobility device without reporting
TITLE VIII RESPECTIVE POWERS OF STATE AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES
Article Section Description
 35 1600-1604 Uniform Statewide Application
 36 1610-1613 State Department of Transportation
 37 1620-1629 Regulation of Traffic By Department of Transportation and other State Authorities
 38 1630-1632 Regulation of Traffic By Public Authorities and Commissions
 39 1640-1646 Regulation of Traffic By Cities and Villages
 40 1650-1652b Regulation of Traffic By County Superintendent of Highways
 41 1660-1664 Regulation of Traffic By Towns
 42 1670-1671 Regulation of Traffic By Local Authorities and School Districts
 43 1672-1677 Traffic Safety Boards
 44 1680-1685 Traffic-Control Devices
 44a 1690 Authority of The Nassau County District Court Judicial Hearing Officer
TITLE IX PENALTIES AND DISPOSITION OF FINES AND FORFEITURES
Article Section Description
 45 1800-1810 Penalties and Disposition of Fines and Forfeitures
     1800 Penalties for traffic infractions
     1801 Penalties for misdemeanors
     1802 Receipts for fines or bail
     1803 Disposition of fines and forfeitures
     1805 Plea of guilty, how put in
     1806 Plea of not guilty by a defendant charged with a traffic infraction
     1806a Default judgment in cases of failure to answer
     1807 Provisions applicable to arraignments for traffic violations
     1808 Effect of stay order on appeal from judgment of conviction of an offense under this chapter
     1809 Mandatory surcharge and crime victim assistance fee required in certain cases
     1809a Mandatory surcharge required in certain cities for parking, stopping and standing violations
     1809aa Mandatory surcharge required for certain parking violations
     1809b Mandatory surcharge required for certain violations relating to handicapped parking spaces
     1809c Additional surcharge required for certain violations relating to driving while intoxicated and driving while impaired
     1809d Mandatory surcharge for violation of maximum speed limits in highway construction or maintenance work areas
     1809e Additional surcharge required for certain violations
     1810 Compensation of officers shall not depend upon apprehension or arrests
TITLE X UNIFORM VEHICLE CERTIFICATE OF TITLE ACT
Article Section Description
 46 2101-2135 Uniform Vehicle Certificate of Title Act
TITLE XI REGISTRATION OF SNOWMOBILES, MOTORBOATS AND LIMITED USE VEHICLES
Article Section Description
 47 2220-2231 Registration of Snowmobiles
     2220 Jurisdiction of department
     2221 Definitions
     2222 Registration
     2223 Display of registration numbers
     2224 Registration record
     2225 Certificate of registration
     2226 Licensing by municipalities
     2227 Rules and regulations
     2228 Special events
     2229 Snowmobile, not a motor vehicle
     2230 Suspension and revocation of registrations;offenses;penalties
     2231 Disposition of fees
 48 2250-2258 Registration of Vessels
     2250 Jurisdiction of department
     2251 Registration
     2252 Exemption from registration
     2253 Certificates of registration, registration numbers, and validating stickers
     2254 Registration record
     2255 Temporary registration
     2256 Suspension and revocation of registrations;offenses;penalties
     2257 Registration of dealers
     2257a Suspension, revocation or refusal to issue dealer registration; suspension or revocation of dealer demonstrator number or trailer plate; suspension of authority to issue temporary registration; civil penalty
     2257b Yacht brokers
     2258 Rules and regulations
 48a 2260-2270 Registration of Limited Use Vehicles
     2260 General provisions
     2261 Registration
     2262 Limitations on registrations
     2263 Revocation and suspension
     2264 Display of registration number plate or plates
     2265 Equipment, inspection and insurance
     2267 Dealers and manufacturers
     2268 Motor-assisted vehicle
     2269 Exemptions
     2270 Rules and regulations
 48b 2280-2291 Registration of All Terrain Vehicles
     2280 Jurisdiction of department
     2281 Definitions
     2282 Registration and permit
     2283 Display of registration
     2284 Registration record
     2285 Certificate of registration
     2286 Licensing by municipalities
     2287 Special events
     2288 Responsibility for operation by minors
     2289 Violations
     2290 Rules and regulations
     2291 Disposition of fees
 48c 2400-2413 Rules for Operation of All Terrain Vehicles
     2400 Legislative purpose
     2401 Definitions
     2402 Rules and regulations
     2403 Operation of ATVs; where permitted
     2404 Operating rules
     2405 Designation of highways and public lands for travel by ATVs
     2406 Equipment
     2407 Liability insurance
     2408 Special events
     2409 ATV safety course and safety certificate
     2410 Operation by minors
     2411 Liability for negligence
     2412 Service on nonresidents and certain residents, administrators or executors
     2413 Accidents; reports
TITLE XII EFFECT OF AND SHORT TITLE OF CHAPTER; Saving Clauses; Laws Repealed
Article Section Description
 49 3000-3004 Effect of and Short Title of Chapter
 50 3010-3015 Saving Clauses;laws Repealed;time to Take Effect

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