S 1011. Purpose. This article is designed to establish procedures to help protect children from injury or mistreatment and to help safeguard their physical, mental, and emotional well-being. It is designed to provide a due process of law for determining when the state, through its family court, may intervene against the wishes of a parent on behalf of a child so that his needs are properly met. S 1012. Definitions. When used in this article and unless the specific context indicates otherwise: (a) "Respondent" includes any parent or other person legally responsible for a child's care who is alleged to have abused or neglected such child; (b) "Child" means any person or persons alleged to have been abused or neglected, whichever the case may be; (c) "A case involving abuse" means any proceeding under this article in which there are allegations that one or more of the children of, or the legal responsibility of, the respondent are abused children; (d) "Drug" means any substance defined as a controlled substance in section thirty-three hundred six of the public health law; (e) "Abused child" means a child less than eighteen years of age whose parent or other person legally responsible for his care (i) inflicts or allows to be inflicted upon such child physical injury by other than accidental means which causes or creates a substantial risk of death, or serious or protracted disfigurement, or protracted impairment of physical or emotional health or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ, or (ii) creates or allows to be created a substantial risk of physical injury to such child by other than accidental means which would be likely to cause death or serious or protracted disfigurement, or protracted impairment of physical or emotional health or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily organ, or (iii) commits, or allows to be committed an offense against such child defined in article one hundred thirty of the penal law; allows, permits or encourages such child to engage in any act described in sections 230.25, 230.30 and 230.32 of the penal law; commits any of the acts described in sections 255.25, 255.26 and 255.27 of the penal law; or allows such child to engage in acts or conduct described in article two hundred sixty-three of the penal law provided, however, that (a) the corroboration requirements contained in the penal law and (b) the age requirement for the application of article two hundred sixty-three of such law shall not apply to proceedings under this article. (f) "Neglected child" means a child less than eighteen years of age (i) whose physical, mental or emotional condition has been impaired or is in imminent danger of becoming impaired as a result of the failure of his parent or other person legally responsible for his care to exercise a minimum degree of care (A) in supplying the child with adequate food, clothing, shelter or education in accordance with the provisions of part one of article sixty-five of the education law, or medical, dental, optometrical or surgical care, though financially able to do so or offered financial or other reasonable means to do so; or (B) in providing the child with proper supervision or guardianship, by unreasonably inflicting or allowing to be inflicted harm, or a substantial risk thereof, including the infliction of excessive corporal punishment; or by misusing a drug or drugs; or by misusing alcoholic beverages to the extent that he loses self-control of his actions; or by any other acts of a similarly serious nature requiring the aid of the court; provided, however, that where the respondent is voluntarily and regularly participating in a rehabilitative program, evidence that the respondent has repeatedly misused a drug or drugs or alcoholic beverages to the extent that he loses self-control of his actions shall not establish that the child is a neglected child in the absence of evidence establishing that the child's physical, mental or emotional condition has been impaired or is in imminent danger of becoming impaired as set forth in paragraph (i) of this subdivision; or (ii) who has been abandoned, in accordance with the definition and other criteria set forth in subdivision five of section three hundred eighty-four-b of the social services law, by his parents or other person legally responsible for his care. (g) "Person legally responsible" includes the child's custodian, guardian, any other person responsible for the child's care at the relevant time. Custodian may include any person continually or at regular intervals found in the same household as the child when the conduct of such person causes or contributes to the abuse or neglect of the child. (h) "Impairment of emotional health" and "impairment of mental or emotional condition" includes a state of substantially diminished psychological or intellectual functioning in relation to, but not limited to, such factors as failure to thrive, control of aggressive or self-destructive impulses, ability to think and reason, or acting out or misbehavior, including incorrigibility, ungovernability or habitual truancy; provided, however, that such impairment must be clearly attributable to the unwillingness or inability of the respondent to exercise a minimum degree of care toward the child. (i) "Child protective agency" means the child protective service of the appropriate local department of social services or such other agencies with whom the local department has arranged for the provision of child protective services under the local plan for child protective services or an Indian tribe that has entered into an agreement with the state department of social services pursuant to section thirty-nine of the social services law to provide child protective services. (j) "Aggravated circumstances" means where a child has been either severely or repeatedly abused, as defined in subdivision eight of section three hundred eighty-four-b of the social services law; or where a child has subsequently been found to be an abused child, as defined in paragraph (i) or (iii) of subdivision (e) of this section, within five years after return home following placement in foster care as a result of being found to be a neglected child, as defined in subdivision (f) of this section, provided that the respondent or respondents in each of the foregoing proceedings was the same; or where the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the parent of a child in foster care has refused and has failed completely, over a period of at least six months from the date of removal, to engage in services necessary to eliminate the risk of abuse or neglect if returned to the parent, and has failed to secure services on his or her own or otherwise adequately prepare for the return home and, after being informed by the court that such an admission could eliminate the requirement that the local department of social services provide reunification services to the parent, the parent has stated in court under oath that he or she intends to continue to refuse such necessary services and is unwilling to secure such services independently or otherwise prepare for the child's return home; provided, however, that if the court finds that adequate justification exists for the failure to engage in or secure such services, including but not limited to a lack of child care, a lack of transportation, and an inability to attend services that conflict with the parent's work schedule, such failure shall not constitute an aggravated circumstance; or where a court has determined a child five days old or younger was abandoned by a parent with an intent to wholly abandon such child and with the intent that the child be safe from physical injury and cared for in an appropriate manner. (k) "Permanency hearing" means a hearing held in accordance with section one thousand eighty-nine of this act for the purpose of reviewing the foster care status of the child and the appropriateness of the permanency plan developed by the social services district or agency. (l) "Parent" means a person who is recognized under the laws of the state of New York to be the child's legal parent. (m) "Relative" means any person who is related to the child by blood, marriage or adoption and who is not a parent, putative parent or relative of a putative parent of the child. (n) "Suitable person" means any person who plays or has played a significant positive role in the child's life or in the life of the child's family. S 1013. Jurisdiction. (a) The family court has exclusive original jurisdiction over proceedings under this article alleging the abuse or neglect of a child. (b) For the protection of children, the family court has jurisdiction over proceedings under this article notwithstanding the fact that a criminal court also has or may be exercising jurisdiction over the facts alleged in the petition or complaint. (c) In determining the jurisdiction of the court under this article, the age of the child at the time the proceedings are initiated is controlling. (d) In determining the jurisdiction of the court under this article, the child need not be currently in the care or custody of the respondent if the court otherwise has jurisdiction over the matter. S 1014. Transfer to and from family court; concurrent proceedings. (a) The family court may transfer upon a hearing any proceedings originated under this article to an appropriate criminal court or may refer such proceeding to the appropriate district attorney if it concludes, that the processes of the family court are inappropriate or insufficient. The family court may continue the proceeding under this article after such transfer or referral and if the proceeding is continued, the family court may enter any preliminary order, as authorized by section one thousand twenty-seven, in order to protect the interests of the child pending a final order of disposition. (b) Any criminal complaint charging facts amounting to abuse or neglect under this article may be transferred by the criminal court in which the complaint was made to the family court in the county in which the criminal court is located, unless the family court has transferred the proceeding to the criminal court. The family court shall then, upon a hearing, determine what further action is appropriate. After the family court makes this determination, any criminal complaint may be transferred back to the criminal court, with or without retention of the proceeding in the family court, or may be retained solely in the family court, or if there appears to be no basis for the complaint, it may be dismissed by the family court. If the family court determines a petition should be filed, proceedings under this act shall be commenced as soon as practicable. (c) Nothing in this article shall be interpreted to preclude concurrent proceedings in the family court and a criminal court. (d) In any hearing conducted by the family court under this section, the court may grant the respondent or potential respondent testimonial immunity in any subsequent criminal court proceeding. S 1015. Venue. (a) Proceedings under this article may be originated in the county in which the child resides or is domiciled at the time of the filing of the petition or in the county in which the person having custody of the child resides or is domiciled. For the purposes of this section, residence shall include a dwelling unit or facility which provides shelter to homeless persons or families on an emergency or temporary basis. (b) If in another proceeding under this act the court directs the filing of an abuse or neglect petition, the venue provision of the article under which the other proceeding is brought and the provisions of part seven of article one shall apply. S 1015-a. Court-ordered services. In any proceeding under this article, the court may order a social services official to provide or arrange for the provision of services or assistance to the child and his or her family to facilitate the protection of the child, the rehabilitation of the family and, as appropriate, the discharge of the child from foster care. Such order shall not include the provision of any service or assistance to the child and his or her family which is not authorized or required to be made available pursuant to the comprehensive annual services program plan then in effect. In any order issued pursuant to this section the court may require a social services official to make periodic progress reports to the court on the implementation of such order. Nothing in such order shall preclude any party from exercising its rights under this article or any other provision of law relating to the return of the care and custody of the child by a social services official to the parent, parents or guardian. Violation of such order shall be subject to punishment pursuant to section seven hundred fifty-three of the judiciary law. S 1016. Appointment of attorney for the child. The court shall appoint an attorney to represent a child who has been allegedly abused or neglected upon the earliest occurrence of any of the following: (i) the court receiving notice, pursuant to paragraph (iv) of subdivision (b) of section one thousand twenty-four of this act, of the emergency removal of the child; (ii) an application for an order for removal of the child prior to the filing of a petition, pursuant to section one thousand twenty-two of this act; or (iii) the filing of a petition alleging abuse or neglect pursuant to this article. Whenever an attorney has been appointed by the family court pursuant to section two hundred forty-nine of this act to represent a child in a proceeding under this article, such appointment shall continue without further court order or appointment during (i) an order of disposition issued by the court pursuant to section one thousand fifty-two of this article directing supervision, protection or suspending judgment, or any extension thereof; (ii) an adjournment in contemplation of dismissal as provided for in section one thousand thirty-nine of this article or any extension thereof; or (iii) the pendency of the foster care placement ordered pursuant to section one thousand fifty-two of this article. All notices and reports required by law shall be provided to such attorney for the child. Such appointment shall terminate upon the expiration of such order, unless another appointment of an attorney for the child has been made by the court or unless such attorney makes application to the court to be relieved of his or her appointment. Upon approval of such application to be relieved, the court shall immediately appoint another attorney for the child to whom all notices and reports required by law shall be provided. The attorney for the child shall be entitled to compensation pursuant to applicable provisions of law for services rendered up to and including disposition of the petition. The attorney for the child shall, by separate application, be entitled to compensation for services rendered subsequent to the disposition of the petition. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the authority of the court to remove the attorney for the child from his or her assignment. S 1017. Placement of children. 1. In any proceeding under this article, when the court determines that a child must be removed from his or her home, pursuant to part two of this article, or placed, pursuant to section one thousand fifty-five of this article: (a) the court shall direct the local commissioner of social services to conduct an immediate investigation to locate any non-respondent parent of the child and any relatives of the child, including all of the child's grandparents, all relatives or suitable persons identified by any respondent parent or any non-respondent parent and any relative identified by a child over the age of five as a relative who plays or has played a significant positive role in his or her life. The local commissioner shall inform them in writing of the pendency of the proceeding and of the opportunity for non-respondent parents to seek temporary release of the child under this article or custody under article six of this act or for relatives to seek to become foster parents or to provide free care under this article or to seek custody pursuant to article six of this act; or for suitable persons to become foster parents or provide free care under this article or to seek guardianship pursuant to article six of this act. Uniform statewide rules of court shall specify the contents of the notice consistent with the provisions of this section. The local commissioner of social services shall report the results of such investigation, or investigations to the court and parties, including the attorney for the child. The local commissioner shall also record the results of the investigation or investigations, including, but not limited to, the name, last known address, social security number, employer's address and any other identifying information to the extent known regarding any non-respondent parent, in the uniform case record maintained pursuant to section four hundred nine-f of the social services law. For the purpose of this section, "non-respondent parent" shall include a person entitled to notice of the pendency of the proceeding and of the right to intervene as an interested party pursuant to subdivision (d) of section one thousand thirty-five of this article, and a non-custodial parent entitled to notice and the right to enforce visitation rights pursuant to subdivision (e) of section one thousand thirty-five of this article. (b) The court shall also direct the local commissioner of social services to conduct an investigation to locate any person who is not recognized to be the child's legal parent and does not have the rights of a legal parent under the laws of the state of New York but who (i) has filed with a putative father registry an instrument acknowledging paternity of the child, pursuant to section 4-1.2 of the estates, powers and trusts law, or (ii) has a pending paternity petition, or (iii) has been identified as a parent of the child by the child's other parent in a written sworn statement. The local commissioner of social services shall report the results of such investigation to the court and parties, including the attorney for the child. (c) The court shall determine: (i) whether there is a non-respondent parent, relative or suitable person with whom such child may appropriately reside; and (ii) in the case of a relative or suitable person, whether such individual seeks approval as a foster parent pursuant to the social services law for the purposes of providing care for such child, or wishes to provide free care for the child during the pendency of any orders pursuant to this article. 2. The court shall, upon receipt of the report of the investigation ordered pursuant to subdivision one of this section: (a) where the court, after a review of the reports of the sex offender registry established and maintained pursuant to section one hundred sixty-eight-b of the correction law, reports of the statewide computerized registry of orders of protection established and maintained pursuant to section two hundred twenty-one-a of the executive law, related decisions in court proceedings under this article and all warrants issued under this act, determines that the child may appropriately reside with a non-respondent parent or other relative or suitable person, either: (i) grant a temporary order of custody or guardianship to such non-respondent parent, relative or suitable person pursuant to a petition filed under article six of this act pending further order of the court, or at disposition of the proceeding, grant a final order of custody or guardianship to such non-respondent parent, relative or suitable person pursuant to article six of this act and section one thousand fifty-five-b of this article; or (ii) temporarily release the child directly to such non-respondent parent or temporarily place the child with a relative or suitable person pursuant to this article during the pendency of the proceeding or until further order of the court, whichever is earlier and conduct such other and further investigations as the court deems necessary. The court may direct the commissioner of social services, pursuant to regulations of the office of children and family services, to commence an investigation of the home of such non-respondent parent, relative or suitable person within twenty-four hours and to report the results to the court and the parties, including the attorney for the child. If the home of a non-respondent parent, relative or suitable person, is found unqualified as appropriate for the temporary release or placement of the child under this article, the local commissioner shall report such fact and the reasons therefor to the court and the parties, including the attorney for the child, forthwith; or (iii) remand or place the child, as applicable, with the local commissioner of social services and direct such commissioner to have the child reside with such relative or suitable person and further direct such commissioner pursuant to regulations of the office of children and family services, to commence an investigation of the home of such relative or other suitable person within twenty-four hours and thereafter approve such relative or other suitable person, if qualified, as a foster parent. If such home is found to be unqualified for approval, the local commissioner shall report such fact and the reasons thereafter to the court and the parties, including the attorney for the child, forthwith. (b) where the court determines that a suitable non-respondent parent or other person related to the child cannot be located, remand or place the child with a suitable person, pursuant to subdivision (b) of section one thousand twenty-seven or subdivision (a) of section one thousand fifty-five of this article, or remand or place the child in the custody of the local commissioner of social services pursuant to subdivision (b) of section one thousand twenty-seven or subdivision (a) of section one thousand fifty-five of this article. The court in its discretion may direct that such commissioner have the child reside in a specific certified foster home where the court determines that such placement is in furtherance of the child's best interests. 3. An order temporarily releasing a child to a non-respondent parent or parents, or temporarily placing a child with a relative or relatives or other suitable person or persons pursuant to subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (a) of subdivision two of this section or remanding or placing a child with a local commissioner of social services to reside with a relative or relatives or suitable person or persons as foster parents pursuant to subparagraph (iii) of paragraph (a) of subdivision two of this section may not be granted unless the person or persons to whom the child is released, remanded or placed submits to the jurisdiction of the court with respect to the child. The order shall set forth the terms and conditions applicable to such person or persons and child protective agency, social services official and duly authorized agency with respect to the child and may include, but may not be limited to, a direction for such person or persons to cooperate in making the child available for court-ordered visitation with respondents, siblings and others and for appointments with and visits by the child protective agency, including visits in the home and in-person contact with the child protective agency, social services official or duly authorized agency, and for appointments with the child's attorney, clinician or other individual or program providing services to the child during the pendency of the proceeding. The court also may issue a temporary order of protection under subdivision (f) of section one thousand twenty-two, section one thousand twenty-three or section one thousand twenty-nine of this article and an order directing that services be provided pursuant to section one thousand fifteen-a of this part. 4. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to limit, impair or restrict the ability of the court to remove a child from his or her home as authorized by law, or the right of a party to a hearing pursuant to section ten hundred twenty-eight of this article. S 1018. Conferencing and mediation. In any proceeding initiated pursuant to this article, the court may, at its discretion, authorize the use of conferencing or mediation at any point in the proceedings to further a plan for the child that fosters the child's health, safety, and well-being. Such conferencing or mediation may involve interested relatives or other adults who are significant in the life of the child. Top of Page
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