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Article 720 - NY Criminal Procedure Law

YOUTHFUL OFFENDER PROCEDURE
720.10 Youthful offender procedure; definition of terms.
720.15 Youthful offender procedure; sealing of accusatory
             instrument; privacy of proceedings; preliminary
             instructions to jury.
720.20 Youthful offender determination; when and how made;
             procedure thereupon.
720.30 Youthful offender adjudication; post-judgment motions and
             appeal.
720.35 Youthful offender adjudication; effect thereof; records.

S 720.10 Youthful offender procedure; definition of terms.
  As  used  in  this  article,  the  following  terms have the following
  meanings:
    1. "Youth" means a person charged with a crime alleged  to  have  been
  committed  when he was at least sixteen years old and less than nineteen
  years old or a person charged with being a juvenile offender as  defined
  in subdivision forty-two of section 1.20 of this chapter.
    2.  "Eligible  youth"  means  a  youth  who  is eligible to be found a
  youthful offender. Every youth is so eligible unless:
    (a) the conviction to be replaced by a youthful  offender  finding  is
  for  (i)  a  class  A-I or class A-II felony, or (ii) an armed felony as
  defined in subdivision forty-one of section 1.20, except as provided  in
  subdivision  three,  or  (iii) rape in the first degree, criminal sexual
  act in the first degree, or aggravated sexual abuse, except as  provided
  in subdivision three, or
    (b)  such  youth  has  previously  been  convicted and sentenced for a
  felony, or
    (c) such youth has previously been  adjudicated  a  youthful  offender
  following  conviction  of  a  felony or has been adjudicated on or after
  September first, nineteen hundred seventy-eight  a  juvenile  delinquent
  who  committed  a  designated  felony act as defined in the family court
  act.
    3. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision two, a youth who  has
  been  convicted  of  an  armed  felony  offense  or of rape in the first
  degree, criminal sexual act in the first degree,  or  aggravated  sexual
  abuse  is  an eligible youth if the court determines that one or more of
  the following factors exist:  (i)  mitigating  circumstances  that  bear
  directly upon the manner in which the crime was committed; or (ii) where
  the defendant was not the sole participant in the crime, the defendant's
  participation   was  relatively  minor  although  not  so  minor  as  to
  constitute a defense to the prosecution. Where the court determines that
  the eligible youth is a  youthful  offender,  the  court  shall  make  a
  statement  on  the  record  of  the  reasons  for  its  determination, a
  transcript of which shall be forwarded to the state division of criminal
  justice services, to be  kept  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of
  subdivision  three  of  section  eight  hundred  thirty-seven-a  of  the
  executive law.
    4. "Youthful offender finding" means a finding,  substituted  for  the
  conviction  of  an  eligible youth, pursuant to a determination that the
  eligible youth is a youthful offender.
    5. "Youthful offender sentence" means  the  sentence  imposed  upon  a
  youthful offender finding.
    6.  "Youthful offender adjudication". A youthful offender adjudication
  is comprised of a youthful offender finding and  the  youthful  offender
  sentence imposed thereon and is completed by imposition and entry of the
  youthful offender sentence.

S 720.15 Youthful offender procedure; sealing of accusatory instrument;
               privacy of proceedings; preliminary instructions to jury.
  1.  When an accusatory instrument against an apparently eligible youth
is filed with a court, the court, with the defendant`s consent, must
order that it be filed as a sealed instrument, though only with respect
to the public.
  2.  When a youth is initially arraigned upon an accusatory instrument,
such arraignment and all proceedings in the action thereafter may, in
the discretion of the court and with the defendant`s consent, be
conducted in private.
  3. The provisions of subdivisions one and two of this section
requiring or authorizing the accusatory instrument filed against a youth
to be sealed, and the arraignment and all proceedings in the action to
be conducted in private shall not apply in connection with a pending
charge of committing any felony offense as defined in the penal law. The
provisions of subdivision one requiring the accusatory instrument filed
against a youth to be sealed shall not apply where such youth has
previously been adjudicated a youthful offender or convicted of a crime.

S 720.20 Youthful offender determination; when and how made;
                procedure thereupon.
  1.  Upon conviction of an eligible youth, the court must order a
pre-sentence investigation of the defendant.  After receipt of a written
report of the investigation and at the time of pronouncing sentence the
court must determine whether or not the eligible youth is a youthful
offender.  Such determination shall be in accordance with the following
criteria:
  (a)  If in the opinion of the court the interest of justice would be
served by relieving the eligible youth from the onus of a criminal
record and by not imposing an indeterminate term of imprisonment of more
than four years, the court may, in its discretion, find the eligible
youth is a youthful offender; and
  (b)  Where the conviction is had in a local criminal court and the
eligible youth had not prior to commencement of trial or entry of a plea
of guilty been convicted of a crime or found a youthful offender, the
court must find he is a youthful offender.
  2.  Where an eligible youth is convicted of two or more crimes set
forth in separate counts of an accusatory instrument or set forth in two
or more accusatory instruments consolidated for trial purposes, the
court must not find him a youthful offender with respect to any such
conviction pursuant to subdivision one of this section unless it finds
him a youthful offender with respect to all such convictions.
  3.  Upon determining that an eligible youth is a youthful offender,
the court must direct that the conviction be deemed vacated and replaced
by a youthful offender finding; and the court must sentence the
defendant pursuant to section 60.02 of the penal law.
  4.  Upon determining that an eligible youth is not a youthful
offender, the court must order the accusatory instrument unsealed and
continue the action to judgment pursuant to the ordinary rules governing
criminal prosecutions.

S 720.30 Youthful offender adjudication; post-judgment motions and
                appeal.
  The provisions of this chapter, governing the making and determination
of post-judgment motions and the taking and determination of appeals in
criminal cases, apply to post-judgment motions and appeals with respect
to youthful offender adjudications wherever such provisions can
reasonably be so applied.

S 720.35 Youthful offender adjudication; effect thereof; records.
  1.  A  youthful  offender adjudication is not a judgment of conviction
  for  a  crime  or  any  other  offense,  and  does  not  operate  as   a
  disqualification  of  any  person  so  adjudged to hold public office or
  public employment or to receive any license granted by public  authority
  but  shall  be  deemed a conviction only for the purposes of transfer of
  supervision and custody pursuant to section two hundred fifty-nine-m  of
  the executive law.
    2.  Except where specifically required or permitted by statute or upon
  specific authorization of the court, all official  records  and  papers,
  whether  on  file  with  the  court,  a police agency or the division of
  criminal justice services, relating to a case involving a youth who  has
  been  adjudicated  a  youthful offender, are confidential and may not be
  made available to any person or public or private agency, other than the
  designated educational official of the public or private  elementary  or
  secondary  school  in  which the youth is enrolled as a student provided
  that such local educational official shall only have  made  available  a
  notice  of  such  adjudication  and  shall  not have access to any other
  official records and papers, such youth or such youth's designated agent
  (but only where the official records and papers sought are on file  with
  a  court  and  request  therefor  is  made  to  that court or to a clerk
  thereof), an institution to which such youth  has  been  committed,  the
  department  of  corrections  and  community  supervision and a probation
  department of this state that requires such official records and  papers
  for  the  purpose of carrying out duties specifically authorized by law;
  provided, however, that information regarding an order of protection  or
  temporary  order of protection issued pursuant to section 530.12 of this
  chapter or a warrant issued in connection therewith may be maintained on
  the  statewide  automated  order  of  protection  and  warrant  registry
  established   pursuant  to  section  two  hundred  twenty-one-a  of  the
  executive law during  the  period  that  such  order  of  protection  or
  temporary  order  of  protection  is  in full force and effect or during
  which such warrant may be executed. Such confidential information may be
  made available pursuant to law only  for  purposes  of  adjudicating  or
  enforcing such order of protection or temporary order of protection and,
  where  provided  to  a  designated  educational  official, as defined in
  section 380.90 of this chapter, for purposes related to the execution of
  the student's educational  plan,  where  applicable,  successful  school
  adjustment  and  reentry  into the community. Such notification shall be
  kept separate and apart from such student's school records and shall  be
  accessible   only   by   the   designated   educational  official.  Such
  notification shall not be part of such student's permanent school record
  and shall not be appended to or included in any documentation  regarding
  such  student  and shall be destroyed at such time as such student is no
  longer  enrolled  in  the  school  district.  At  no  time  shall   such
  notification  be used for any purpose other than those specified in this
  subdivision.
    3. If a youth who has been adjudicated a youthful offender is enrolled
  as a student in a public or private elementary or secondary  school  the
  court  that  has  adjudicated  the  youth  as  a youthful offender shall
  provide notification of such adjudication to the designated  educational
  official  of  the  school  in which such youth is enrolled as a student.
  Such notification shall be used by the designated  educational  official
  only  for purposes related to the execution of the student's educational
  plan, where applicable, successful school adjustment  and  reentry  into
  the  community.  Such notification shall be kept separate and apart from
  such student's school records  and  shall  be  accessible  only  by  the
  designated  educational official. Such notification shall not be part of
  such student's permanent school record and shall not be appended  to  or
  included  in  any  documentation  regarding  such  student  and shall be
  destroyed at such time as such student is  no  longer  enrolled  in  the
  school  district.  At  no  time  shall such notification be used for any
  purpose other than those specified in this subdivision.
    4. Notwithstanding subdivision two of this section, whenever a  person
  is  adjudicated  a youthful offender and the conviction that was vacated
  and replaced by the youthful offender finding was for a sex  offense  as
  that  term  is  defined  in  article  ten of the mental hygiene law, all
  records pertaining  to  the  youthful  offender  adjudication  shall  be
  included  in  those  records  and  reports  that  may be obtained by the
  commissioner of mental  health  or  the  commissioner  of  developmental
  disabilities,  as  appropriate;  the case review panel; and the attorney
  general pursuant to section 10.05 of the mental hygiene law.

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